Employee Relations

In a democratic society, there is the need to afford employees at all levels the fullest degree of individual freedom and opportunity consistent with the coordination required for efficient operation. Both employers and employees have rights and obligations each must observe in order to develop and maintain positive relationships.  
                                  Adopted Winter 2012 Effective until Winter 2016

3.01. Employee Involvement

The NAM strongly supports the concepts of employee involvement (EI), employee participation and the use of teams to resolve operational issues and improve economic performance. In order to remain competitive in our global economy, employers need to fully utilize the economic potential of all their employees. Those employers who fully invest in their employees, provide them with the skills they need and empower them to perform their jobs in the workplace will gain a competitive advantage and be better positioned to continue to provide high-wage employment. 

There is no protocol for a successful model of employee involvement. The form and mechanisms EI takes should be based on what is appropriate for a specific workplace. Mandated forms, compulsory programs and dictated "solutions" reduce operational flexibility and are counterproductive. Both employers and employees need the freedom and flexibility to determine their own specific methods and processes for improving performance and meeting customer demands.

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3.02. Union Relations

3.02a. Union and Employer Responsibility

Labor relations should be conducted in a spirit of cooperation and mutual respect. Because employees, unions and employers all have a vital stake in maintaining workplaces that are productive and competitive, emphasis and resources should be placed on solving problems and resolving issues rather than on conflict and confrontation.

Any statute, either state or federal, dealing with the subject of labor-management relations should provide that:

"¢ Both unions and employers are responsible for the acts of their respective agents under generally recognized rules of agency; and

"¢ Labor unions should be responsible under the law for the concerted activities of their members.

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3.02b. Collective Bargaining Procedures

Where collective bargaining is in effect, both parties should participate with a sincere desire to make such bargaining effective, and the following principles should apply:

"¢ Collective bargaining representatives of the employees and the employer should be equally responsible under the law to bargain in good faith and to adhere to the terms of their collective bargaining agreements.

"¢ Collective bargaining agreements should provide orderly procedures for settlement of disputes arising over the meaning or interpretation of a provision of the agreement.

"¢ The use of grievance mediation should be encouraged in an ongoing effort to reduce costly conflicts and resolve disputes.

Mass picketing and all forms of coercion, intimidation or violence should be prohibited and all federal, state and local laws in respect thereto should be impartially and adequately enforced. Some of the practices that should be subject to statutory regulation are jurisdictional strikes; sympathy strikes; strikes against the government; strikes to force employers or employees to ignore or violate the law; strikes to force recognition of any uncertified union; strikes to enforce featherbedding or other work-restrictive demands; and secondary boycotts, picketing or bannering.

In case a majority of all employees in an appropriate group have voluntarily, and without intimidation or coercion, elected collective bargaining representatives by secret ballot election, their employer should undertake, in good faith, to utilize such a relationship to achieve understanding and cooperation.

Federal labor policy and legislation should continue to encourage the free and lawful flow of facts and information between employees and employers when workers consider union representation. Laws or agreements that restrict the free flow of this information and prevent workers from hearing all of the facts should not be promoted at the federal level.

3.02c. Freedom of Choice in Union Membership

The NAM supports the following principles:

"¢ Every employee and prospective employee should be guaranteed freedom""without intimidation or coercion from any source""to join or not join a labor organization and to maintain or discontinue his/her membership, financial support and participation in its activities. The NAM firmly believes employees should have the right to information from both employers and union officials and an appropriate amount of time to review the information to better make important decisions impacting their jobs and families.

"¢ No individual should be deprived of his/her right to work at a job available to him/her, and for which he/she is qualified. No individual or organization should be permitted to coerce, harm or injure the individual, his/her family or his/her property at home, at work, or elsewhere in any matter or action relating to his/her employment.

"¢ In cases where a labor agreement exists, and where union dues are handled by payroll deductions, the conditions should be covered in the agreement. Such deductions should be subject to revocation upon the initiative of the employee.

"¢ Employees who freely wish to be represented by a labor union should be organized in a collective bargaining unit that accurately reflects the long established "community of interest" doctrine, and which avoids counterproductive sub-groups of employees.

"¢ Orderly procedures, free from coercion or intimidation from any sources, should be observed by employers, labor organizations and employees in determining whether a majority of employees in an appropriate group wish to deal individually with their employer or through collective bargaining representatives. This fundamental employee right to select or reject a bargaining agent should be guaranteed through secret ballot elections conducted by an appropriate agency with adequate safeguards.

"¢ Strikes during normal operations, boycotts, slowdowns, picketing or other concerted interferences undertaken to compel an employer to recognize any collective bargaining representative that has not been certified under orderly procedures should be prohibited by law, with effective penalties.

"¢ In the case of an economic strike, persons actually on the payroll on the date of a representation election are the ones genuinely interested in the outcome of a vote for representation. No artificial factors should prevent such persons from voting in such cases, and voting rights in representation elections should be restricted to employees on the active payroll of the unit involved.

3.02d. Union Political Funds

The involuntary collection or use of funds by labor unions for political purposes should be prohibited by statute. The NAM supports the codification of the Beck Supreme Court decision, which holds that union members cannot be forced to have mandatory union dues go to political causes or organizations they do not support

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3.03. Government Relationship Labor Practices

3.03a. Authority of States

States and territories should have and exercise the responsibility to enact and enforce legislation to regulate or restrict strikes, picketing or boycotts, and to protect the health and safety of the people of the states and territories during labor disputes, regardless of whether the same conduct might also be subject to federal regulation or restraint.

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3.03b. Government Intervention

The right of the parties to reach voluntary agreement requires acceptance of the fact that failure to reach agreement may result in a strike or lockout. The possibility, and its attendant inconvenience, is part of the price we must pay for the maintenance of responsible collective bargaining.

Intervention in any manner, other than conciliation assistance, by the government in labor disputes should be kept to the absolute minimum. Such intervention should be limited to the unbiased and impartial administration of applicable labor laws. In the event of a strike or lockout that imperils the national health, safety or security, any restraining order issued to maintain the status quo should be of such duration as necessary to protect the public interest.

Every employer should have the ability to seek advice and services from legal counsel and other advisors concerning labor law, employee relations policy and other issues to make informed business and workplace decisions. In order to maintain the integrity of the decision-making process and to protect the attorney-client privilege, communications with an attorney and/or service provider, as well as financial expenditures for these communications and services on labor law and employee relations, should not be mandated to be disclosed.

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3.03c. Compulsory Arbitration

No form of compulsory arbitration, including labor courts, should be imposed or required by law.

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3.03d. Secret Strike Ballot

The law should provide for a secret vote under government supervision of all members of the bargaining unit on whether to strike or accept the company's last/final offer. Such votes should be taken at the request of either employer or union and either before a strike is called or afterward. It is further understood that more votes could be requested by either party, but only at
some reasonable interval.

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3.03e. Plant Seizure

Government seizure of plants and property in connection with labor disputes should be prohibited.

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3.03f. Plant Closings

The NAM considers early notice of plant closings beneficial in helping dislocated workers find new employment. The NAM further finds it is advisable for corporations to act responsibly in plant closings by providing as much notice as possible.

However, as each plant closing situation is unique, the NAM does not see the wisdom in expanding the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act, which already provides ample notification and remedies to workers. Acceptable public policy for the business community should focus on incentives to encourage early notice of workforce reductions rather than sanctions.

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3.03g. Ratification of International Labor Organization Conventions

The NAM considers the need for, and the value, of U.S. ratification of International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions undemonstrated. The NAM also considers the review of individual conventions to involve complex issues, such as usefulness to U.S. economic and social conditions, employee welfare and business competitiveness""especially of small and medium-sized companies. Accordingly, the NAM sees the necessity for the following criteria, at a minimum, to be satisfied preceding ratification by the U.S. of any ILO convention:

"¢ Each convention will be examined on its merits on a tripartite basis to determine if there are differences between U.S. federal and state law and practice and the convention's provisions.

"¢ No ILO convention conflicting with federal law and practice will be ratified unless and until federal law and practice is conformed to the convention in advance and through the normal legislative process.

"¢ No ILO convention which conflicts with state law and practice will be ratified unless and until the conflicts between the convention and state law and practice are resolved.

The NAM will oppose ratification if these minimal criteria are not fulfilled and the need and value of the convention is not demonstrated.

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3.03h. Government Employee Relations
InIn their role as employer, citizen and major taxpayer, private employers have a vital and legitimate interest in government employer-employee relations at the federal, state and local levels. The rapidly increasing disruptive impact on the general public and the spillover effect of labor problems on private employers, which have accompanied the substantial growth of government employee unionization, require the business community to define a responsible position with respect to this important subject. The public interest can be furthered by the involvement of private employers in the development of appropriate legislation and in the promotion of sound personnel policies and practices, as well as harmonious employee relations at all levels of government.
Employers recognize that the principles of free speech, assembly and petition extend to employees in both the private and public sectors. Employees in both sectors should have the ability""without intimidation or coercion from any source""to join and support, or to refrain from joining and supporting, labor organizations of their choice. However, such government employees as policemen and firemen, who are charged with essential services involving the immediate protection of the public health and safety, should not be permitted to join or affiliate with labor organizations that represent other government employees.

In the interests of the public and the government employees involved, all forms of union security to compel employees to join or remain members of a union or to provide the check-off of union dues should be prohibited to ensure that complete freedom of choice is exercised.

Our constitutional form of government entrusts to the legislatures at all levels of government the sole right and responsibility to raise and appropriate revenues for all government operations, and to determine labor policy with regard to state and local government employees. Any attempt to counteract or interfere with this democratic system, other than through the exercise of the constitutional right to vote and petition the legislature, must be rejected. The final resolution of impasses and disputes involving purely economic matters having direct impact on government revenues or matters regulated by statute must remain with the duly elected representatives of the people.

For the same reason, strikes by government employees do not comport with our constitutional system of government, and they should therefore be expressly prohibited. Strict compliance with the letter and intent of laws prohibiting strike activity by government employees must be maintained. Effective penalties for violation of the strike prohibition should be forthrightly and expeditiously levied.

Employers believe that, notwithstanding the privilege to strike, equitable and meaningful voluntary measures should be provided to resolve labor-management impasses and disputes between government employers and their employees, subject to the sole right and responsibility of the legislature, as noted above. However, federal policy and legislation should not mandate collective bargaining for public sector employers.

Employers further believe it is essential to provide an environment conducive to the development of sound employer-employee relations for all government employees, whether or not they are members of, or represented by a union. These systems should provide equitable and realistic policies and procedures encompassing promotion, discipline, discharge, grievances, job classifications and definitions, job security and other appropriate matters involving the employer-employee relationship. The systems also should be designed to provide the most efficient and productive operation of the applicable government agencies. Any variations that may be agreed to by an agency and a union should be within the provisions of any applicable statue.

Where appropriate and when not in contradiction with any principle contained herein, the policy positions of employee relations, which encompass industrial relations in the private sector, shall apply to government employer-employee relations.

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3.04. Personnel Policies

Employers should develop policies to encourage mutual respect and foster sound and friendly relationships between employees and employers so that harmonious and rewarding relationships are created. This will help attain good business objectives, providing more and better products at lower prices to more people.

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3.05. Equal Opportunity in Employment

Equal Equal opportunity in employment is a prime objective that employers should actively and continually support. The NAM supports and recommends the following principles:

"¢ The formulation and implementation of individual corporate or institutional policies of equal opportunity at all levels of employment. In every instance, an individual's ability and qualifications to perform the job should guide the employment process.

"¢ The development and implementation of procedures and specific plans to ensure equal treatment in the administration of all personnel matters without regard for race, color, religion, national origin, disability, sex or age, except where sex or age is a bona fide occupational qualification.

"¢ Positive actions to achieve the understanding and cooperation of employees and, if applicable, their union representatives toward such objectives as those described above.

The implementation of equal opportunity principles can also be enhanced by the positive and responsible efforts of government. The NAM believes government, at all levels, can best fulfill its responsibilities by:

"¢ Adoption of consistent, reasonable and working regulations and guidelines to the extent necessary to achieve the above.

"¢ Fair and consistent application of such regulations and guidelines, including ample opportunity for judicial review and appeal where violations are alleged.

"¢ Simplification of administrative procedures, reports and inspections, including elimination of burdensome and repetitive certifications and similar requirements.

"¢ Elimination of duplication in administrative efforts among and between government agencies and levels of government.

"¢ Opposing the expansion of existing federal equal employment and anti-discrimination laws, unless it is absolutely necessary to protect these rights.

"¢ Supporting the rights of all employees to make voluntary, informed choices on benefits according to individual need. This includes the right of employees to make their own decisions to choose enhanced benefits, such as early retirement incentives, in exchange for releasing certain rights. The right to individual choice should not be diminished by legislation so rigorous as to deny employees the opportunity and right of choice.

"¢ Upholding the clear and reasonable guidelines that create a predictable climate, such as statutes of limitation in filing discrimination claims.

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3.06. Teamwork Through Better Understanding

Two-way channels of communications between employers and employees are essential to the cultivation of good relationships and the encouragement of better economic, social and civic understanding.

These channels of communications provide the climate for a spirit of cooperation and understanding between employees and management, keep employees informed of policies, problems, and the future outlook of the company and keep management informed of the needs, desires, suggestions and reactions of the employees. Such communications by the parties should be assured the complete freedom of expression without governmental or other compulsion, regulation, restraint or interference.
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3.07. Freedom of Speech  and Property Rights

Freedom of speech for both employers and employees, as protected by the Constitution, should not be impaired.

Employers have the right to determine which individuals, businesses and organizations can have access to their workplaces, employer-provided equipment and information systems to ensure productive work environments and prevent disruptions which may hinder operations.

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3.08. Employee Compensation

High levels of job performance and employee satisfaction are encouraged by relating compensation that is both internally equitable and externally
competitive to performance on the job. Employees are responsible for performing a fair day's work.

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3.09. Technological Changes

A higher standard of living for all can come about only as the result of efficient and profitable production of more and better goods and services. To this end, it is essential that:

"¢ Employee efforts will be made more effective by technological improvements. Such improvements will be expedited by employee understanding of the benefits of technological improvements and by employee acceptance of the necessary changes in methods and equipment.

"¢ Employers plan such changes so as to minimize disruption to employment.

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3.10. Employment Stabilization

The NAM recognizes steady employment and steady pay are of vital importance to employees and contribute to a sound economy. There is increasing evidence of the progress management is making to avoid wide fluctuation in employment and payrolls by modifying unstable factors within its control.

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3.11. Length of the Work Week

Any compulsory reduction in the length of the statutory 40-hour work week for overtime purposes will arbitrarily contribute inflationary pressure and adversely affect the economy of our nation and our ability to compete in the global economy.

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3.12. Premium Pay Penalties

Imposing a higher overtime rate or other pay penalties on America's production processes would raise costs and prices and create new obstacles to the economic growth essential to full employment.

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3.13. Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value

The principle of equal pay for equal work performance with the wage and salary structure of business establishments is sound. Differentials in compensation are soundly based when work performance and job requirements are the criteria.

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3.14. Job Opportunities for Disabled Workers

Employers know from experience that a disabled individual, when matched to the requirements of the job, is no longer disabled. Employers should endeavor to provide wider employment opportunities for the disabled by adhering to personnel policies that promote the hiring, retention and advancement of these individuals on a sound basis.

The NAM believes government at all levels can best fulfill its responsibilities by:

"¢ Supporting the original intent of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the necessary protections it provides applicants/employees who may have a physical or mental impairment, substantially limiting one or more major life activities.

"¢ Supporting the current process hby working proactively to ensure qualified individuals become productive members of the workforce.

"¢ Encouraging the mutual, interactive aspects of the ADA that allow applicants/employees to engage their employer when appropriate to seek necessary accommodations.

"¢ Allowing for the applicant/employee and employer to consider all circumstances regarding the disability or impairment so the qualified applicant/employee is matched to a position that meets his/her individual needs.

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3.14.a Accessibility

The NAM believes that all covered employers and places of business have a duty to reasonably accommodate disabled individuals according to Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act. To that end, the federal government should consider all cost and feasibility concerns in any revision of accessibility regulations.

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3.15. Workplace Flexibility

Within the framework of the statutory 40-hour workweek, employers must have maximum flexibility to vary the length of the workday and the number of days in the work week, without incurring premium pay penalties. Such flexibility is required to accommodate changes in technology and changes in work practices and employee needs.

In the establishment of optimum work schedules, which vary from company to company, consideration should be given to productivity and employee health and safety.

The federal government should recognize and promote the voluntary efforts of employers to respond to individual employee needs for work schedule flexibility. Employers believe that the federal government should not mandate workplace flexibility programs of any kind, including specific paid leave programs and systems that impede the flexibility of employers to design workplace programs that best meet the needs of their employees.

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3.16. Substance Abuse

There is a staggering financial and human cost of alcohol and other drug abuse in the workplace. Most importantly, the safety of workers and consumers is jeopardized by impaired employees.

The NAM supports the following voluntary measures to combat the problem of alcohol and substance abuse in the workplace:

"¢ Employee alcohol and drug education and awareness programs;

"¢ Establishment of overall company policies on substance abuse;

"¢ Employee assistance programs; and

"¢ The testing of employees for substance abuse.

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3.17. Substance Abuse Testing

As a key component of a successful drug-free workplace program, the NAM supports the right of employers to test employees and applicants, provided appropriate safeguards are instituted to assure testing accuracy.

It is the NAM's belief that any legislation addressing drug testing issues must include:

"¢ Affirmation of employers' right to drug test under clearly defined circumstances;

"¢ Pre-emption of restrictive state and local laws discouraging effective drug-free workplace programs; and

"¢ Appropriate protections for legitimate employee concerns.

It should be up to the individual employer as to what a company's drug testing policy shall be.
The NAM opposes any legislation prohibiting employers from testing applicants and employees for substance abuse.

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3.18. Family and Medical Leave Law

The NAM recognizes the evolution in the demographics of the workforce.. Increasing numbers of employees with young children or elderly parents pose new human resource challenges. Pressure from balancing family with job responsibilities weighs heavily on most employees.

Employers must actively seek innovative solutions to the challenges of work and family life balance. All avenues of flexible benefit design and possibilities of accommodation should be explored to allow employees to remain on the job. Many employers have already instituted programs to help, including:

"¢ Alternative Work Schedule""such as flextime, voluntary reduced work weeks, job- sharing, telecommuting, leaves of absence and part-time employment.

"¢ Child and Dependent Care Programs""including onsite and near-site day care, day care subsidies and child care vouchers.

"¢ Employee Assistance Programs""to provide counseling for employees under stress from family responsibilities.

"¢ Flexible Benefits Plans""to allow employees to choose benefits such as parental leave or day care in lieu of traditional benefits.

The economic feasibility of such programs will be different for each company. Only the individual employer can determine if such programs can and should be offered. Corporate policies on family and medical leave will be determined by many factors such as the type of business, competitive standards in the industry, size and skill of the workforce and the ability to assume costs.

The NAM believes government at all levels can best fulfill its responsibilities by:

"¢ Ensuring that the original intent and important benefits of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) are realized without unnecessary expansions.

"¢ Opposing federal initiatives that seek to mandate one-size-fits-all benefit programs on employers.

"¢ Encouraging flexibility in the workplace rather than restricting employee benefit design. The globally competitive economy of the 21st century dictates that the most workable and universally beneficial legislation would retain and promote flexibility of programs and choices for employees and employers. Employers, not government, are in the best position to decide the type and scope of benefits to be made available to employees.

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3.19. Occupational Safety and Health

The NAM believes employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful work environment and conducting effective occupational safety and health programs. These programs are essential to good employee relations and sound business practices. Employers must be able to maintain and utilize their authority and freedom to fulfill these responsibilities in the best way possible given their individual operations, equipment, workforce and business circumstances.

Manufacturers believe both employers and employees have important roles in maintaining safe workplaces.

To achieve our shared goals of maintaining safe workplaces, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) should be as much of a resource for manufacturers as it is an enforcement agency. Improving safety is most effective when all parties""employers, employees and OSHA""work together to achieve better results.

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3.19a. Occupational Safety and Health Programs - Employer Roles

Employers should formulate and conduct sound safety programs, including definitive safety policies and effective engineering, administrative, educational, and motivational procedures. The NAM believes employers are best suited to:

"¢ Establish programs and procedures, identify hazards, implement feasible and effective controls, and promote safe and healthful practices. Programs should be performance-oriented and communicated to all employees. Employers must be free to select the ingredients of a program and provide for employee participation that best fits their workplace environments.

"¢ Encourage the interest and support of employees in safety and health programs. The ongoing support and interest of employees is essential to any safety and health program's success.

"¢ Support and encourage safety and health education programs and activities, promote off-the-job safety and introduce employees and their families to the personal benefits of healthy lifestyles.

"¢ Provide occupational health programs encompassing the preventive, curative and rehabilitative phases of occupational health.

"¢ Promote workplace safety and health through programs, encourage employees to work safely and hold accountable anyone engaged in unsafe work practices.

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3.19b. Standards and Regulations - Government Roles

AllAll new occupational safety and health standards and regulations should be adopted through the current statutory and regulatory framework established by both Congress and the executive branch. This important framework is designed to preserve for all stakeholders a voice in the process of developing new standards and regulations. Sound scientific, data-driven research and review is a necessary basis for all new occupational safety and health standards and regulations. A thorough examination of the impact of standards and regulations on covered entities is required to ensure both their feasibility and worker protection.

Effective occupational safety and health standards and regulations can only be developed through active participation by employers in the rulemaking process, including the utilization of their affiliations with trade associations, standards organizations and national, state and local safety and health organizations. Employers should provide qualified personnel to participate in occupational safety and health standards and regulations development.

Occupational safety and health standards and regulations development must be supported by essential facts as they relate to injury/illness causes and effective interventions. Employers should participate in the development of these essential facts.

Occupational safety and health standards and regulations as set forth in this section, which are subject to government administration and enforcement, should be applied and interpreted in a uniform manner throughout the nation so as to not unduly burden interstate commerce and multi-state employers.

Current occupational safety and health standards and regulations should be reviewed to ensure they are working as intended. Prior to any new rulemaking, OSHA should practice due diligence in reviewing whether existing standards and regulations address emerging safety and health issues. OSHA should work to limit the regulatory burden on employers, especially the small manufacturer, whenever possible.

Employees' claims resulting from occupationally related injury or disease should be handled through existing state workers' compensation programs and individual employer benefit programs.

Effective occupational safety and health compliance is the responsibility of both employers and employees. In accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Section 5, every OSHA investigation and enforcement effort should review and address the compliance responsibilities of both employers and employees equally.

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3.19c. Enforcement of Workplace Safety Laws

Employers must have access to due process rights when contesting alleged violations of OSHA standards and regulations. Federal policy should allow employers to stay abatement requirements pending the full completion of a challenge to the citation through the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

Criminal penalties for OSHA violations must be levied only when willful intent of repeated violations is clearly demonstrated by an employer.

To ensure that individuals tasked with enforcing OSHA standards and regulations are able to properly assess potential violations, OSHA officers who work with employers must undergo adequate levels of training and have experience in the sector or industry they are charged to enforce.

Proper education and training of OSHA compliance officers and inspectors will enable such personnel to better understand the dynamics of the workplaces they inspect and ensure they are competent to make fully informed judgments.

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3.20. Use of "Testers"

The NAM opposes the use of "testers" who pose as job applicants, misrepresenting their interest in employment and often their qualifications. We believe that deception and misrepresentation have no place in the employment process. These unethical practices result in increased recruitment costs and missed opportunities for sincere qualified applicants. Accordingly, we believe the deceptive activities of testers should never be used.

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3.21. Employee Record Privacy

The NAM believes personal privacy is important and certainly of premier importance in the business world. Specifically, the confidentiality and equality with which employee personnel records are treated has long been a concern to employers. The NAM believes employers should follow all federal guidelines and existing laws designed to protect the records of employees.

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3.22. Comparable Worth

The NAM has a strong commitment to equal employment opportunity and supports vigorous enforcement of current anti-discrimination laws. Although we believe employers must ensure both men and women are given equal opportunity in hiring, pay and job advancement, the NAM does not support a comparable worth concept, whereby some government entity would impose its own measurement on the value of dissimilar jobs. This is abhorrent to a free enterprise system. It would result in a confused set of ever-changing government standards and prolonged litigation for devising employer compensation practices. Employers must be able to take into account market influences and the worth of particular jobs to their own companies. The federal government should restrict itself to enforcement of current anti-discrimination laws.

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3.23. Affirmative Action

The NAM supports affirmative action as an effective method of achieving civil rights progress. Employers realize it is good business policy to encourage and promote programs that enhance minority and female participation at all levels within the workplace. Affirmative action programs have strengthened the fabric of society and created an environment of cooperation and understanding among people of diverse backgrounds. In endorsing affirmative action, it should be made clear that goals, not quotas, are the standards to be followed in the implementation of such programs.

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