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Here’s some good news: Moderna’s final-stage COVID-19 vaccine test began on Monday, according to The Wall Street Journal (subscription). The company’s researchers intend to conduct a nationwide, 30,000-person trial of its experimental vaccine, with the goal of testing whether two doses of the product can safely protect against COVID-19.

The timeline: Moderna is hoping that, with positive results, a vaccine could be available as early as this fall.

And more good news: Pfizer and German biotech BioNTech have also started their 30,000-person trials, which will extend around the globe. Their timeline? To get the vaccine into regulatory review by the fall.

So once a vaccine is ready, what happens next? A whole bunch of logistical challenges is what. The Atlantic details some of the complications involved:

  • A vaccine probably won’t offer complete protection, though it will prevent severe cases.
  • Production will be a challenge, with manufacturers seeking to make hundreds of millions of doses in record time and jockeying for supplies like glass vials.
  • Distribution will face major hurdles as federal and state governments are forced to coordinate vaccine delivery.
  • One in five Americans say they will refuse to get a vaccine even if it’s available, while nearly a third say they haven’t decided.

And one last PSA: STAT News gives us a heads-up that these vaccines may create some physical discomfort. That may actually be good news—the reaction could be a sign of your immune system going to work—but it’s probably best not to expect an entirely pleasant experience from a potentially lifesaving vaccine.

As always, your best bet for now is to follow CDC guidelines, wash your hands, maintain social distancing and wear a face covering.

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